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  1. How is JavaFit Diet Plus and JavaFit Energy Plus best used?
  2. How is JavaFit Immune with Multi-Vitamins best used?
  3. How is JavaFit Focus with Multi-Vitamins best used?
  4. What is Alpha-GPC?
  5. What is Echinacea and does it work?
  6. What is Citrus Aurantium (also known as Bitter Orange)?
  7. Can everyone consume Citrus Aurantium?
  8. What is Chromium?
  9. Is Chromium supplementation safe?
  10. What is Garcinia Cambogia?
  11. Are the JavaFit Coffee formulas patented?
  12. What’s the lowdown on coffee? Is it good or bad for your health?
  13. What is the real effect of coffee on blood pressure?
  14. Does coffee increase your risk of arthritis?
  15. Does drinking coffee with a meal further enhance the thermic or thermogenic effect (metabolic rate enhancing) of the meal?
  16. Do people who drink coffee have higher cholesterol levels than those who do not?
  17. Do either coffee or caffeine cause cancer?
  18. Does coffee make you fat or keep you from losing fat?
  19. I heard that Green tea extract can be used as a supplement to increase metabolism and fight fat? Is that true?
  20. What is caffeine?
  21. How does caffeine itself taste?
  22. What is a "moderate" intake of caffeine?
  23. Why is caffeine added to so many medicines?
  24. Is caffeine banned by the International Olympic Committee?
  25. What’s an effective dose of caffeine for enhancing exercise performance?
  26. What’s the best dose of caffeine for improving mental alertness and energy?
  27. What’s the best dose of caffeine for promoting fat burning and thermogenesis?
  28. Can you overdose on caffeine?
  29. Should pregnant women avoid caffeine?
  30. What’s the effect of caffeine on children?
  31. Is caffeine addictive?
  32. Can caffeine increase the risk of heart disease?
  33. Does caffeine cause cancer?
  34. Does caffeine affect bone mineral content in women?
  35. How long does caffeine stay in your system?
  36. What does the "62" in Diet Plus and Energy Extreme mean?
  37. How do you brew a cup of JavaFit coffee?


Q: How is JavaFit Diet Plus and JavaFit Energy Plus best used?

A: Consume these blends (2 cups maximum) 20-30 minutes prior to exercise. Alternatively, if you want a quick pick-me-up, drink 1 cup in the afternoon.

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Q: How is JavaFit Immune with Multi-Vitamins best used?

A: Consume this blend regularly to get the benefits of Echinacea, an immune support ingredient, and the essential vitamins and minerals.

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Q: How is JavaFit Focus with Multi-Vitamins best used?

A: When you need a mental boost (e.g. staying at the office late, final exams, afternoon doldrums, etc), take JavaFit Focus to keep your mind sharp.

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Q: What is Alpha-GPC?

A: Alpha-GPC, also known as alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, is a cognition enhancer. It makes your brain work better!1 Click Here To Read More About Aplha GPC

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Q: What is Echinacea and does it work?

A: According to a recent study, “this meta-analysis suggests that standardized extracts of Echinacea were effective in the prevention of symptoms of the common cold after clinical inoculation, compared with placebo.” So it does help fight the common cold!2

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Q: What is Citrus Aurantium (also known as Bitter Orange)?

A: According to noted sports nutrition expert, Alan Shugarman, M.S., R.D., citrus aurantium is a citrus fruit that contains synephrine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, tyramine, and octopamine. The actives in bitter orange increase metabolism by stimulating the beta-3 receptors while not directly stimulating beta 1 and 2 like ephedrine. Compared to ephedrine Citrus aurantium has little effect on heart rate and blood pressure. AdvantraZ is a brand of Citrus aurantium patented for thermogenesis (heat production), reducing body weight, and increasing lean muscle. The recommended dose is between 60 � 120 mg per day in two to three doses. Citrus aurantium is often combined with caffeine to increase its effects on metabolism and calorie burning. You will often find Citrus aurantium in ephedrine free weight loss supplements. While research on the Bitter Orange for weight loss is not abundant the product does show promise and more research is planned in the future.

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Q: Can everyone consume Citrus Aurantium?

A: If you are taking prescription medications or are nursing or pregnant, we recommend that you consult with a qualified health professional before consuming JavaFit Diet Plus.

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Q: What is Chromium?

A: It’s a trace mineral that is involved in glucose (sugar) metabolism and the regulation of insulin levels.

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Q: Is Chromium supplementation safe?

A: Yes, most studies show no side effects. A few individuals may get stomach upset.

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Q: What is Garcinia Cambogia?

A: HCA or hydroxycitric acid is the active ingredient extracted from this fruit. There is some animal data showing that HCA may suppress appetite. Also, there are no adverse effects of HCA though some individuals might get stomach upset.

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Q: Are the JavaFit Coffee formulas patented?

A: Javalution has filed for patents to protect our proprietary blends.

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Q: What’s the lowdown on coffee? Is it good or bad for your health?

A: According to a summary of study published in 2005, scientists stated that “coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide [actually we think water is�but who's arguing?]; Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”3 Also, coffee has been shown to:

  • Help maintain testosterone levels in men.
  • May reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
  • May reduce the risk of gallstone disease.
  • May reduce the risk of Type II diabetes.
  • Has no effect on the incidence of heart disease.
  • Has no association with breast cancer incidence.

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Q: What is the real effect of coffee on blood pressure?

A: One study looked at the effect of decaffeinated versus regular coffee on blood pressure and heart rate in a randomized double-blind, crossover trial of 45 healthy volunteers (23 women and 22 men, 25-45 years old) with a habitual intake of 4-6 cups coffee/day. They received 5 cups of regular coffee each day for a period of 6 weeks, and 5 cups of decaffeinated coffee for the next 6 weeks or vice versa. The background diet was kept constant. The total amount of caffeine ingested was 40 mg during the decaffeinated coffee period and 445 mg during the regular coffee period. Use of decaffeinated coffee led to a significant but small decrease in systolic (-1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-1.0 mm Hg) ambulant blood pressure and to a small increase in ambulant heart rate (+1.3 beats/min). The authors of the study concluded that in normotensive (i.e. have normal blood pressure) adults replacement of regular by decaffeinated coffee leads to a real but small fall in blood pressure. Despite what these fine doctors have concluded, we must interject that a 1.0 to 1.5 mm Hg alteration in blood pressure is not clinically meaningful. If you go to your physician and have your BP measured, it can vary by as much as 1-10 mm Hg from visit to visit. This study is an example of how ‘statistically significant’ findings are in actuality ‘physiologically meaningless.’4 Further, it should be noted that the many large-scale studies show no long-term effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure.

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Q: Does coffee increase your risk of arthritis?

A: Scientists determined whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, total coffee, tea, or overall caffeine consumption was associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis using the Nurses' Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of 121,701 women. Accordingly, they found “little evidence of an association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea consumption and the risk of RA among women.”5

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Q: Does drinking coffee with a meal further enhance the thermic or thermogenic effect (metabolic rate enhancing) of the meal?

A: Yes! There are studies to show that the thermic effect of the meal was significantly greater after coffee than after decaffeinated coffee and again fat oxidation was significantly greater after coffee. In conclusion caffeine/coffee stimulates the metabolic rate in both control and obese individuals; however, this is accompanied by greater oxidation of fat in normal weight subjects.6 Also, another study showed that the thermic effect of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee ingested with a standard breakfast was studied in 8 healthy subjects with indirect calorimetry. A higher increase in the metabolic rate was observed after ingestion of the breakfast with coffee containing caffeine than after that with coffee deprived of caffeine.7

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Q: Do people who drink coffee have higher cholesterol levels than those who do not?

A: In general, people who drink coffee do not have higher cholesterol levels than people who do not.

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Q: Do either coffee or caffeine cause cancer?

A: There is no conclusive evidence that coffee or caffeine has such an effect.

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Q: Do coffee make you fat or keep you from losing fat?

A: There is no evidence whatsoever to support this absurd claim. In fact, the primary active in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine is a lipolytic agent as well as a potent ergogenic aid. If that makes you fat, then the Earth is flat and unicorns really do exist.

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Q: I heard that Green tea extract can be used as a supplement to increase metabolism and fight fat? Is that true?

A: Yes. In fact, a landmark study looked at 24 hour energy expenditure in 10 healthy men that underwent three different treatments: green tea extract (50 mg caffeine and 90 mg epigallocatechin gallate), caffeine (50 mg), and placebo, which they ingested at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. They found that relative to the placebo, treatment with the green tea extract resulted in a significant increase in 24 hour energy expenditure (i.e. calories burned). According to the authors, "green tea has thermogenic properties and promotes fat oxidation beyond that explained by its caffeine content per se. The green tea extract may play a role in the control of body composition via sympathetic activation of thermogenesis, fat oxidation, or both."8

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Q: What is caffeine?

A: Chemists technically refer to caffeine as an alkaloid. There are several types of alkaloids of which caffeine belongs to a specific class called the methylxanthines. Other methylxanthines include theophylline (used in medicines to treat asthma) and theobromine (found in chocolate). Each of these methylxanthines has stimulant properties.9

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Q: How does caffeine itself taste?

A: Caffeine has a bitter taste.

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Q: What is a "moderate" intake of caffeine?

A: A moderate intake of caffeine for an adult is about 300 mg a day. That’s roughly 2-4 cups of brewed coffee.

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Q: Why is caffeine added to so many medicines?

A: Because caffeine further enhances the analgesic (i.e. pain relief) properties of medications. For instance, one study looked at the efficacy of 100-mg diclofenac sodium softgel (an NSAID or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory) with or without 100-mg caffeine versus placebo in individuals during migraine attacks. The major finding of the study was that diclofenac softgel plus caffeine produced statistically significant benefits compared to placebo at 60 minutes. Diclofenac softgel alone was no different than the placebo!11-13 Another investigation looked at the benefits of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine (AAC) in the treatment of severe, disabling migraine attacks. Scientists concluded that “the nonprescription combination of AAC was well tolerated and effective.”11-13. Perhaps this is one reason why caffeine might help exercise performance! You feel less pain during exercise and can therefore work out even harder and with more intensity.

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Q: Is caffeine banned by the International Olympic Committee?

A: Caffeine is no longer a banned substance by the IOC. Nor is it banned by other sport governing bodies (e.g. NCAA, NFL, MLB, NBA, etc).

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Q: What’s an effective dose of caffeine for enhancing exercise performance?

A: A range of 250-350 mg caffeine seems to be sufficient for inducing an ergogenic effect.

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Q: What’s the best dose of caffeine for improving mental alertness and energy?

A: A range of 300-600 mg caffeine is effective for enhancing energy.

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Q: What’s the best dose of caffeine for promoting fat burning and thermogenesis?

A: A range of 280-560 mg will get your metabolic furnace turned even higher!

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Q: Can you overdose on caffeine?

A: There are case reports of caffeine toxicity secondary to overdose. For instance, one individual ingested approximately 3.57 g of caffeine in a suicide attempt and developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. The patient was treated successfully. This case, according to the doctors, “represents a rarely reported complication of caffeine intoxication, rhabdomyolysis, which occurred in the absence of other toxins or conditions that predispose to muscle necrosis.” 14 There was another case of a 20-year-old bulimic woman who ingested 20 grams of caffeine in a suicide attempt. After being evaluated and discharged from the emergency department, she was readmitted with ECG changes and ultimately found to have sustained a subendocardial infarction. Keep in mind that these doses are over 11-fold greater than a typical daily serving of caffeine. Or to put in perspective, a 20 gram dose of caffeine would be equal to 78 Diet Cokes (in the first case) and 438 Diet Cokes (in the second case). The LD_50 of caffeine (that is the lethal dosage reported to kill 50% of the population) is estimated by some to be 10 grams for oral administration.15

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Q: Should pregnant women avoid caffeine?

A: One study suggested that caffeine consumption may produce a small decrease in birth weight, however, it is “unlikely to be clinically important except for women consuming >/=600 mg of caffeine daily.16 Another study looked at caffeine intake among 111 mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (56 boys, 55 girls) compared to the intake among 747 mothers of non-SGA infants (368 boys, 379 girls). Mothers of SGA infants had higher mean intake of caffeine [281 mg/day] in the third trimester than mothers of non-SGA infants (212 mg/day). Scientists concluded that “high caffeine intake in the third trimester may be a risk factor for fetal growth retardation, in particular if the fetus is a boy.”17 Also, a high intake of caffeine prior to pregnancy seems to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, whereas a low-to-moderate alcohol intake does not influence the risk.18 The prudent course of action would be to limit caffeine consumption to less than 200 mg of caffeine daily. Certainly, it would behoove pregnant women to seek their physician’s advice.

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Q: What’s the effect of caffeine on children?

A: Generally, caffeine is well tolerated in usual dietary amounts, and there is evidence that individuals differ in their susceptibility to caffeine-related adverse effects, which in turn may influence their consumption. Overall, the effects of caffeine in children seem to be modest and typically innocuous.19 However, like any substance, there is potential for abuse. One study reported on children and adolescents with daily or near-daily headaches and excessive consumption of caffeine in the form of cola drinks. The mean age of the subjects was 9.2 years (range 6-18) and mean headache duration was 1.8 years (range 0.6-5). All were heavy cola drinks consumers; at least 1.5 liters of cola drinks per day (192.88 mg of caffeine daily), and an average of 11 (range 10.5-21) liters of cola drinks weekly, which amounts to 1414.5 mg of caffeine (range 1350-2700 mg). Patients were encouraged to achieve gradual withdrawal from cola drinks, which led to complete cessation of all headaches in 33 subjects, whereas one boy and two adolescent girls continued to suffer from headaches.20 Based on available evidence, scientists have concluded that children could consume 21

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Q: Is caffeine addictive?

A: This isn’t a trick question. Though one might surmise that folks use the word "addicted" in a rather profligate manner. Some liken caffeine ‘addiction’ to the same way they say they are "addicted" to shopping or watching TV. Oddly enough, caffeine is not addictive by accepted definitions in the neuroscience literature. When regular caffeine consumption is abruptly ceased, it is certain that some individuals may experience headache, fatigue or drowsiness. Whether this qualifies as ‘addiction’ in the strictest sense is debatable. According to a study published in the journal ‘Brain Research,’ “low doses of caffeine which reflect the usual human level of consumption fail to activate reward circuits in the brain and thus provide functional evidence of the very low addictive potential of caffeine.”22

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Q: Can caffeine increases the risk of heart disease?

A: Contrary to common belief, the published literature provides little evidence that coffee and/or caffeine in typical dosages increases the risk of infarction (i.e. heart attack), sudden death or arrhythmia.23 In one of the largest studies ever conducted, The Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, scientists followed 41,934 men from 1986 to 1998 and 84,276 women from 1980 to 1998. These participants did not have diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at baseline. Coffee consumption was assessed every 2 to 4 years through validated questionnaires. What did they discover? Scientists discovered an inverse association between coffee intake and type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index, and other risk factors. Also, total caffeine intake from coffee and other sources was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for diabetes in both men and women. In plain English, this means that coffee/caffeine consumption may in fact be good for you! Thus, long-term coffee consumption is associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for type 2 diabetes.24 Another study indicated that high consumers of coffee have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The beneficial effects may involve both improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced insulin response.25 However, if you are hypertensive or have several cardiovascular risk factors, it would be prudent for you to seek the advice of your family practice doctor.

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Q: Does caffeine cause cancer?

A: There’s no evidence that caffeine increases your risk of cancer. In the Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort, a large population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden comprising 59,036 women aged 40-76 years. Scientists found in this large cohort of Swedish women, consumption of coffee, tea, and caffeine was not associated with breast cancer incidence.26 In a case-control comparison of 323 women with benign breast disease and 1,458 controls, no differences were noted in the coffee and tea consumption patterns of the cases and controls.27 Even mice given caffeine showed an inhibition of tumor formation in high-risk mice. 28

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Q: Does caffeine affect bone mineral content in women?

A: Not if you add 1-2 tablespoons of milk to your coffee! The epidemiologic studies showing a negative effect may be explained in part by an inverse relationship between consumption of milk and caffeine-containing beverages. What? This means that low calcium intake per se, not consuming caffeine (i.e. in beverages) is the main culprit. The negative effect of caffeine on calcium absorption is small enough to be fully offset by as little as 1-2 tablespoons of milk according to a study published in 2002. There is no evidence that caffeine has any harmful effect on bone status or on the calcium economy in individuals who ingest the currently recommended daily allowances of calcium.29 In a study on college-aged women, caffeine consumption was not associated with significant reduction in rates of bone gain. While calcium and protein nutrition affect bone gain in the third decade of life in women, moderate caffeine intake (one cup of coffee per day, or 103 mg) appears to be safe with respect to bone health in this age group.30

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Q: How long does caffeine stay in your system?

A: Scientists have a term for how long something lasts in your body; it’s called ‘half-life.’ And half-life represents the time required for the potency of a drug or substance to fall to half of its potency or to be eliminated from the body. For example, if the amount of a drug in your body is 10 with a half-life of 2 days, the amount left after 2 days will be 5. And then it drops in half each subsequent 2 days. In a study on normal weight and obese subjects given 162 mg caffeine orally the half-life was slightly longer in obese (7.1 hours) versus normal weight (5.4 hours) individuals.31 Also, for women who use oral contraceptives the half-life of caffeine tends to be longer (average of 7.9 hours versus 5.4 hours in the controls [women who don’t take birth control pills]).32 In general, you could say that most normal weight healthy individuals will eliminate from their body 50% of the ingested caffeine after 5-6 hours.

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Q: What does the "62" in Diet Plus and Energy Extreme mean?

A: JavaFit added an additional 62 mg of caffeine per 6 to 8 oz.

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Q: How do you brew a cup of JavaFit coffee?

A: Empty contents of packet into coffee maker. Fill coffee pot with 10-12 cups of water. Brew coffee, sweeten and add creamer if desired. Enjoy the rich, robust taste and experience the Javalution.

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News Articles

Coffee: The New Health Food? WebMD Feature

Plenty of health benefits are brewing in America's beloved beverage.

Want a drug that could lower your risk of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and colon cancer? That could lift your mood and treat headaches? That could lower your risk of cavities? If it sounds too good to be true, think again. Coffee, the much maligned but undoubtedly beloved beverage, just made headlines for possibly cutting the risk of the latest disease epidemic, type 2 diabetes. And the real news seems to be that the more you drink, the better.

Harvard - Coffee has many health benefits

The latest research has not only confirmed that moderate coffee consumption doesn't cause harm, it's also uncovered possible benefits.
Studies show that the risk for type 2 diabetes is lower among regular coffee drinkers than among those who don't drink it. Also, coffee may reduce the risk of developing gallstones, discourage the development of colon cancer, improve cognitive function, reduce the risk of liver damage in people at high risk for liver disease, and reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease. Coffee has also been shown to improve endurance performance in long-duration physical activities.

Coffee Lowers Diabetes Risk, U.S. Study Shows

Coffee May Help Prevent Cavities

Caffeine Sharpens the Mind

How Coffee Could Ease Your Headache

Caffeine may protect against Parkinson’s

Coffee found to be high in health-giving antioxidants

Find out about the amount of caffeine in coffee...

Find out how coffee protects you from oral cancers...

Find out how coffee can prevent Alzheimer's disease...

Find out about coffee addiction...

Find out how much fiber there is in coffee...

How coffee reduces the risk of developing liver cancer...

Find out about how coffee protects against liver disease...

Find out how coffee protects you against skin cancer...

Find out how caffeine protects the elderly from heart disease...

Find out about carbohydrates in coffee...

Find out about calories in coffee...

Find out about antioxidants in coffee...

Find out about coffee and diabetes...

Find out how coffee can increase your brain power...

Find out how coffee can reduce muscle pain after working out...

Coffee is 'health drink' says Italian

Coffee for health and well being

Mice Study Reveals Coffee May Benefit Men with ALS

Did you know that drinking coffee is good for you?

There has been much debate over the benefits of coffee, but recent evidence suggests that the good outweighs the bad when it is used in moderation.

Coffee is rich in antioxidants, like clorogenic and melanic acids, and recent medical research suggests that drinking it is associated with a reduced risk of a variety of illnesses and an improvement in overall body and mental performance.
The following is a short list of coffee's health benefits.

  • The caffeine content may relieve your headaches
  • It is known to increase mental focus
  • Reduces the risk of cirrhosis of the liver by 60-80%
  • Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Extra protection against Parkinson’s disease
  • Reduced risk for Alzheimer’s disease
  • Reduces the rates of age-related cognitive decline
  • Great source for antioxidants
  • Provides extra energy for exercise

References

  1. Lopez CM, Govoni S, Battaini F, et al. Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Aug 1991;39(4):835-840.
  2. Schoop R, Klein P, Suter A, Johnston SL. Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther. Feb 2006;28(2):174-183.
  3. Ranheim T, Halvorsen B. Coffee consumption and human health - beneficial or detrimental? - Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mol Nutr Food Res. Feb 10 2005.
  4. van Dusseldorp M, Smits P, Thien T, Katan MB. Effect of decaffeinated versus regular coffee on blood pressure. A 12-week, double-blind trial. Hypertension. Nov 1989;14(5):563-569.
  5. Karlson EW, Mandl LA, Aweh GN, Grodstein F. Coffee consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. Nov 2003;48(11):3055-3060.
  6. Acheson KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Pittet P, Anantharaman K, Jequier E. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. May 1980;33(5):989-997.
  7. Zahorska-Markiewicz B. The thermic effect of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee ingested with breakfast. Acta Physiol Pol. Jan-Feb 1980;31(1):17-20.
  8. Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. Dec 1999;70(6):1040-1045.
  9. http://coffeefaq.com/caffaq.html
  10. http://www.eufic.org/gb/food/pag/food34/food343.htm
  11. Forbes JA, Jones KF, Kehm CJ, et al. Evaluation of aspirin, caffeine, and their combination in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1990;10(6):387-393.
  12. Goldstein J, Hoffman HD, Armellino JJ, et al. Treatment of severe, disabling migraine attacks in an over-the-counter population of migraine sufferers: results from three randomized, placebo-controlled studies of the combination of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. Cephalalgia. Sep 1999;19(7):684-691.
  13. Peroutka SJ, Lyon JA, Swarbrick J, Lipton RB, Kolodner K, Goldstein J. Efficacy of diclofenac sodium softgel 100 mg with or without caffeine 100 mg in migraine without aura: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Headache. Feb 2004;44(2):136-141.
  14. Wrenn KD, Oschner I. Rhabdomyolysis induced by a caffeine overdose. Ann Emerg Med. Jan 1989;18(1):94-97.
  15. http://coffeefaq.com/caffaq.html
  16. Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, Hellenbrand K, Leaderer BP. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol. Mar 1 2003;157(5):456-466.
  17. Vik T, Bakketeig LS, Trygg KU, Lund-Larsen K, Jacobsen G. High caffeine consumption in the third trimester of pregnancy: gender-specific effects on fetal growth. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. Oct 2003;17(4):324-331.
  18. Tolstrup JS, Kjaer SK, Munk C, et al. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion? Hum Reprod. Dec 2003;18(12):2704-2710.
  19. Castellanos FX, Rapoport JL. Effects of caffeine on development and behavior in infancy and childhood: a review of the published literature. Food Chem Toxicol. Sep 2002;40(9):1235-1242.
  20. Hering-Hanit R, Gadoth N. Caffeine-induced headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. Jun 2003;23(5):332-335.
  21. Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam. Jan 2003;20(1):1-30.
  22. Nehlig A, Boyet S. Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence. Brain Res. Mar 6 2000;858(1):71-77.
  23. Chou TM, Benowitz NL. Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. Oct 1994;109(2):173-189.
  24. Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. Jan 6 2004;140(1):1-8.
  25. Agardh EE, Carlsson S, Ahlbom A, et al. Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women. J Intern Med. Jun 2004;255(6):645-652.
  26. Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Ann Epidemiol. Jan 2002;12(1):21-26.
  27. Marshall J, Graham S, Swanson M. Caffeine consumption and benign breast disease: a case-control comparison. Am J Public Health. Jun 1982;72(6):610-612.
  28. Lou YR, Lu YP, Xie JG, Huang MT, Conney AH. Effects of oral administration of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on the formation and growth of tumors in high-risk SKH-1 mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light. Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(2):146-153.
  29. Heaney RP. Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. Food Chem Toxicol. Sep 2002;40(9):1263-1270.
  30. Packard PT, Recker RR. Caffeine does not affect the rate of gain in spine bone in young women. Osteoporos Int. 1996;6(2):149-152.
  31. Abernethy DR, Todd EL, Schwartz JB. Caffeine disposition in obesity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Jul 1985;20(1):61-66.
  32. Abernethy DR, Todd EL. Impairment of caffeine clearance by chronic use of low-dose oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;28(4):425-428.

 

 
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